With housing prices on the rise again, buying a home might be quite challenging for buyers with a small budget. If you’re still looking for a sizable home, but don’t want to shell out the big bucks, investing in a fixer-upper house could be a great option for you.With a little bit of work, you could turn a rundown dump into your dream home, especially if you commission an experienced contractor to do the repairs. However, paying for the house and the repairs might be difficult because many lenders don’t want to finance a house that requires a lot of work.
Fortunately, the U.S. Federal Housing Administration (FHA) – a division of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) – has the Section 203(k) program, a mortgage insurance program especially developed for this situation. It permits homebuyers to finance up to an additional $35,000 into their mortgage to remodel their home before moving in. The 203(k) loan includes funds for the purchase, repair/improvement costs, inspection fees, and even six month’s carrying costs.
The program is primarily designed to finance the renovation of single family homes which serve as the principal residence. Eligible properties are one to four dwelling units that have been constructed for at least one year. The units have to comply with local zoning regulations. Loans might apply to houses moved from one site to another for renovation. Furthermore, also current homeowners can also use the 203(k) loan to refinance existing mortgages. The program has a six-month deadline for completion, though there are extensions available if warranted.
There are two different 203(k) loan options for homebuyers, depending on the scale of the home renovation project. The standard 203(k) program starts with a feasibility study, overseen by an approved consultant, which helps the FHA determine whether the home repairs are justified. Together with the lender, the consultant monitors the project’s progress and conducts a final inspection after completion. The streamlined version is for smaller, less complex projects where no permits, plans or specs are needed. In addition, the homeowners don’t need a consultant and can just use a certified contractor.
Below are the basic steps that you need to do if you want to finance your fixer-upper though the 203(k) loan program.
- Figure out what you can afford.
First, you need to determine how much you can spend on a new home. Current 203(k) loan programs are 3.5% down and the minimum loan amount is $5,000. Contact a lender to see for what loan amount you would qualify based on your income and taxes. Yet, keep an eye on what you can actually afford and don’t stretch your budget too much. You should also check if the cost of the house plus renovation exceeds check the HUD’s maximum mortgage limit in that area.
- Find a house with potential.
It is smart to find a fixer-upper in a desirable location as this would significantly increase the house’s market value after its renovation is completed. Conduct a preliminary feasibility analysis where you identify what repairs are needed, calculate what the costs will be, and estimate what the market value would be after the renovation. This can also save you a lot of money spent on appraisal/estimates in case you find out it would be too expensive.
- Execute a sales contract.
You need to have a sales contract for the home you wish to renovate in order to proceed with the 203(k) loan application process. The contract has to include a clause stating that the sale of the house is contingent on your ability to receive financing through the 203(k) program. You can also ask the seller to pay the closing costs as this would lower the amount of money you would need to complete the purchase.
- Apply for the 203(k) loan.
Find a HUD-approved lender to apply for the loan. In order to find a lender approved by HUD, you can contact the closest HUD office or visit HUD’s website to obtain a list of lenders. Since the application means extra paperwork for the loan officer, some might be reluctant to help you out, so you need to stay persistent. These loans are approved every work day of the year.
- Get an estimate by a consultant/contractor.
Since the amount of the 203(k) loan cannot be changed once the application is approved, it is crucial to get an exact as possible estimate of the renovation expenses prior to construction. 203(k) loans require at least a 10-15% contingency reserve for such unexpected expenses. The best way to estimate the costs is by hiring a HUD-approved contractor or fee consultant. You can find approved consultants on the HUD website.
- Get an appraisal.
In fact, you will need two appraisals, one for the current value of the house (“as-is”) and another one for the estimated value of the house after the repairs (“as-completed”). The loan amount should not surpass either the “as-is” value of the home plus the cost of repairs or 110% of the estimated “as-completed” value.
- Find a contractor.
The 203(k) program requires that the renovation be performed by a qualified contractor. It is strongly recommended to actually hire a licensed contractor, even if you may be qualified to do the repair works yourself. In that case, you would have to inform your lender early in the application process and they will want to know your expertise in the work you are asking them to finance. Moreover, even if you demonstrate your capability, they will NOT compensate you for your labor, only for the materials. The repair works might take longer and the lender will require a larger contingency reserve if you can’t finish. A certified 203(k) contractor, however, will ensure that the renovation will be completed in a cost-efficient and timely manner. The contractor will be paid through a “repair escrow” set aside by the lender.
- Close on the home.
If your 203(k) application is approved, you can purchase your fixer-upper home. If you can’t move in right away, you can use the six months of mortgage payments that can be included in your loan to pay the mortgage and live somewhere else for the time being.
- Adhere to the schedule.
You have to make sure that the renovation work is being completed with the six-months deadline. The repair fund is held in escrow and is disbursed in installments to the contractor (or to you, if you’re doing the work yourself). A HUD-approved inspector will review the progress of the renovation before each disbursement is made.
- Get a final inspection.
Once the work is completed according to the initial agreement, you will have to get a final inspection. If any money is left over (e.g. if you did the work yourself), it will be applied toward the principal of the loan.